Review of GARD Section

GARD, a new way to battle with chronic respiratory diseases, from disease oriented programmes to global partnership

Nikolai Khaltaev


Initiated by World Health Organization (WHO) Global Chronic Respiratory Disease (CRD)-oriented programmes, Global Initiative on Asthma (GINA), GOLD—Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma (ARIA), and Practical Approach to Lung Health (PAL) have catalyzed creation of the Global Alliance against CRD (GARD). Forty-five countries sharing GARD’s goal to reduce the burden of CRD joint GARD. In 20 countries with reliable death estimates, CRD mortality has been analyzed in 2000, 2005, 2010 and 2015. Dramatic decline in CRD mortality is seen in Kyrgyzstan, Netherlands, Italy and Republic of Korea (69%, 55%, 48%, and 48%). Positive trend in COPD mortality is seen for Lithuania (36% decline) and Spain (21%). In France, Japan, Mexico, Romania and Costa Rica, positive trend for asthma mortality is obvious from 2000 to 2015 from about 40% in France and Romania, 50% and Mexico and Czech Republic, 65% in Japan and 69% in Belgium. In Costa Rica zero asthma mortality was registered in 2015. In Czechia and Belgium decline is seen from 2000 to 2005, which then stabilized in Czech Republic and went further down in Belgium. In Finland initially, low asthma mortality remains practically unchanged with slight decline in 2015. In other countries analyzed, we did not see any positive trend in CRD mortality. In all countries with positive CRD dynamic WHO introduced activities remained active, they have been taken into local guidelines and practice and supported national authorities in implementing these evidence-based guidelines. Before GARD launch WHO initiated activities produced a good basis for further GARD movement and by 2010 we see a visible positive trend in CRD mortality in success countries. By 2015 when WHO noncommunicable disease (NCD) Global Action Plan 2013–2020 rollouts globally dramatic decline in total CRD mortality and particularly in Asthma and COPD mortality became obvious. Global disease oriented programmes, national and international partnerships combined with the Global NCD Action Plan most probable produce a positive synergistic effect on the mortality from CRD.

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