Review Article

Catheter-based alternative treatment for early-stage lung cancer with a high-risk for morbidity

Ze-Rui Zhao, Rainbow W. H. Lau, Calvin S. H. Ng


The mainstream treatment modality for early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is surgery; however, many patients are deemed inoperable and warrant alternative therapeutic options. Several minimally invasive catheter-based therapies are emerging as viable alternatives. In this review, we evaluate the outcomes from radiofrequency ablation (RFA), microwave ablation (MWA), cryoablation (CRA) and photodynamic therapy (PDT) for early-stage lung cancer. Novel technical developments have allowed for endobronchial thermal ablation to be conducted in a hybrid theatre setting, which may optimize treatment outcomes and minimise treatment-related complications.

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